Generally, if you exchange business or investment property solely for business or investment property of a like kind, section 1031 provides that no gain or loss is recognized. If, as part of the exchange, you also receive other (not like-kind) property or money, gain is recognized to the extent of the other property and money received, but a loss is not recognized. Section 1031 does not apply to exchanges of inventory, stocks, bonds, notes, other securities or evidence of indebtedness, interests in a partnership, certificates of trust or beneficial interests, or certain other assets. See section 1031(a)(2). In addition, section 1031 does not apply to certain exchanges involving tax-exempt use property subject to a lease. See section 470(e)(4). If you exchanged stock in a mutual ditch, reservoir, or irrigation company, see the discussion later.
Like-kind property. Properties are of like kind if they are of the same nature or character, even if they differ in grade or quality. Personal properties of a like class are like-kind properties. Property that is exchanged for a different type of property or class of property will not qualify as like-kind property. Livestock of different sexes are not like-kind properties. Also, personal property used predominantly in the United States and personal property used predominantly outside the United States are not like-kind properties. See Pub. 544, Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets, for more details. Real properties generally are of like kind, regardless of whether they are improved or unimproved. However, real property in the United States and real property outside the United States are not like-kind properties.
Deferred exchanges. A deferred exchange occurs when the property received in the exchange is received after the transfer of the property given up. For a deferred exchange to qualify as like kind, you must comply with the timing requirements for identification and receipt of replacement property. The replacement property for the exchange must be identified within 45 days after the property being given up is transferred. The replacement property must be received within 180 days, or by the due date of the tax return including extensions, whichever is earlier. See the instructions for Line 5 and Line 6, later, for more details. If you make a deferred exchange using a qualified intermediary (QI), the transfer of the property given up and receipt of like-kind property is treated as a like-kind exchange. If you fail to meet the timing requirements because of the QI, your transaction will not qualify as a deferred exchange and any gain may be taxable in the year you transferred the property. However, if the QI defaults on its obligation to acquire and transfer replacement property because of bankruptcy or receivership proceedings and you meet certain requirements, you may be able to report the gain in the year or years payments are received. For the requirements, see Rev. Proc. 2010-14, 2010-12 I.R.B. 456, available at www.irs.gov/irb/2010-12_IRB/ar07.html
Multi-asset exchanges. A multi-asset exchange involves the transfer and receipt of more than one group of like-kind properties. For example, an exchange of land, vehicles, and cash for land and vehicles is a multi-asset exchange. An exchange of land, vehicles, and cash for land only is not a multi-asset exchange. The transfer or receipt of multiple properties within one like-kind group is also a multi-asset exchange. Special rules apply when figuring the amount of gain recognized and your basis in properties Oct 26, 2015 Cat. No. 12597K Page 2 of 4 Fileid: … ions/I8824/2015/A/XML/Cycle11/source 11:11 – 26-Oct-2015 The type and rule above prints on all proofs including departmental reproduction proofs. MUST be removed before printing. received in a multi-asset exchange. For details, see Regulations section 1.1031(j)-1.
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